Bell work

Tuesday, January 5: What techniques do you apply to make sense out of a difficult text?

Wednesday, January 6: Is Sergeant-Major Morris a responsible character?

Thursday, January 7: Would you make wishes on the monkey’s paw, knowing the condition the fakir put on the paw and knowing its history?

Friday, January 8: Why are the Whites not taking the monkey’s paw seriously?

Tuesday, January 12: Why do some people want to believe in the impossible?

Wednesday, January 13: What can be inferred from the behavior of the man from Maw and Meggins?

Thursday, January 14: Why did the Whites remain “in a state of expectation as though of something else to happen–something else which was to lighten this load” after their son had been killed?

Tuesday, January 19: Why does Mr. White ask, “Was not that enough?” when Mrs. White suggests making another wish on the monkey’s paw?

Completion of the Twelve PSAT Preps

To get full credit for the completion of the twelve PSAT preps, you will need to submit two documents, each worth one hundred points. The first is the practice exercises for each PSAT prep. It will look like a series of completed practice sheets. The second is a summary of the first document. In a summary of each PSAT prep, you will do three things: 1. point out one rule or advice in the prep; 2. give an example of the rule or advice; and 3. explain how the rule or advice applies to the example.

For example, this is a possible summary for PSAT prep #12:

The relative pronoun who has three forms: who is used as the subjective; whom as the objective; whose as the possessive. For example, “I told Maria whose book was lost not to worry about replacing it.” Whose is the possessive form of who, meaning that the book belonged to Maria.

PSAT prep #12

The use of the relative pronoun who occurs often enough that it is worthwhile to focus on it a bit longer. More precisely, when do you use who, and when do you use whom?

PSAT prep 12

Who versus whom

Because most words in English do not change orthographically, that is their spelling does not change to indicate how they are being used (are they the subject or the object of a sentence?), the relative pronoun who poses a problem because who may demand a change in spelling that indicates its use.  Therefore, use who when it is the doer of the action or the subject of the verb to be; use whom when it is the receiver of the action.  For example, “Fatima is the girl who threw the ball”: who is the doer.  “Ali is the boy who is sick”: who is the subject of is.  “Mohammad is the student whom the principal praised for volunteering”: whom is the object of praised.

Now, your turn.  Choose the correct form of the relative pronoun who and explain your choice.

  1. Students consider Hussein the class clown (who, whom) they turn to for a laugh.
  2. The coach chose Hanan, (who, whom) has not missed a practice, as captain of the basketball team.
  3. Teachers rely on students (who, whom) participate in class discussion.
  4. Students appreciate teachers (who, whom) they can come to for help

Now, compose two sentences with who and two with whom.

PSAT prep #11

As has been seen, subordinating conjunctions introduce subordinate clauses just as relative pronouns (that, which, and who) do. That and which are usually used correctly. However, for many students, who often poses significant problems.

PSAT prep 11

Who poses problems for many students because it has three forms: who, whom, and whose.  Who is used as the subject; whom is used as an object; and whose is used as a possessor.  For example, 

  1. Fatima is the student who loves to talk always.
  2. Alaa is the student whom the students chose to be class president.
  3. Hassan is the student whose work is always posted on the board.

In the first sentence, who is the subject of loves.  In the second, whom is the object of chose.  In the third, whose is the possessor of work.

Additionally, do not confuse the contraction for who is, who’s, with the possessive whose.  The confusion probably occurs because both sound alike.  For example: Mariam is the student who’s most qualified to help other students with their writing.

Now, put in your own words what you understand from this lesson and come up with your own examples for properly using this, at times confusing, relative pronoun. Compose two sentences for each of the following: who, whom, whose, who’s.

PSAT prep #10

The PSAT practices have looked at subordinating conjunctions and coordinating conjunctions. The differences between them is important. Review the lists of both types of conjunctions in previous preps before you begin prep 10.

PSAT prep 10

As you have seen, conjunctions are important because they connect groups of words (as well as words and phrases).  In connecting, conjunctions also show the importance of the thoughts being expressed.  When one thought (group of words, clause) is more important than another, the less important one is subordinated.  When both thoughts are of equal importance, the thoughts are coordinated.  The conjunctions that signal the order of importance are called by what they do, subordinating conjunctions and coordinating conjunctions.  A way to remember the difference is to think of their Latin roots: ordinate means order; sub means under; co means equal.

Identify the order of importance of the thoughts in the following sentences.  Look to the conjunctions to tell you the order: less important, equally important.

  1. Nasib loves to read, and she love loves to write.
  2. Because Judy cannot stop talking, she has trouble participating in class activities.
  3. Heyam works well in groups in school, but she has difficulties studying by herself at home.
  4. If Governor Whitmer ends the school year tomorrow, students at Lowrey will be very disappointed.
  5. Abrar enjoys reading adventure novels, while Noor prefers to read mystery short stories.

Now, summarize in your own words the lesson on the difference between subordinating and coordinating conjunctions and come up with at least three sentences with subordinating conjunctions and three sentences with coordinating conjunctions demonstrating your understanding of them.

PSAT prep #9

The previous PSAT preps have focused on sentences with subordinate clauses. This prep focuses on sentences with independent clauses.

PSAT Practice, lesson 9

As you have seen, subordinating conjunctions are used to combine clauses of unequal importance.  For example, “Language Arts is fun because we get to do a lot of reading.”  The more important part of the sentence is “Language Arts is fun.”  Of less importance is “because we get to do a lot of reading.”  The subordinating conjunction connecting the two clauses is because.

To combine clauses of equal importance, the coordinating conjunctions are used: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet.  For example, “Getting good grades requires time, and it takes effort.”

Combine the following sentences with a coordinating conjunction:

  1. Fatima loves to play basketball.  She does not care to participate in volleyball.
  2. Mohammad studied all night.  He slept all day.
  3. The morning was sunny.  The afternoon was cloudy.
  4. Forgetting to complete the reading logs brings down your grades.  Reading is an important Language Arts skill.

To show you have understood this lesson, write five sentences combining two clauses of equal importance. 

PSAT prep #8

This lesson reviews recognizing sentences with subordinate clauses. The previous lesson looked at sentences with subordinate clauses beginning with a relative pronoun; this lesson presents sentences with subordinate clauses beginning with a subordinating conjunction.

PSAT prep 8

In PSAT prep 5, you learned the following:

Subordinating conjunctions:

after, although, as, as if, because, before, even though, if, how, in order that, rather than, since, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, when, where, whether, while, why

These words subordinate, or make dependent, the group of related words with a subject and verb that comes after it.  For example, “Until she completes reading for at least forty minutes a day for her reading log, Fatima cannot go to sleep.”  The clause “Until she completes reading for at least forty minutes a day for her reading log” cannot stand alone because the thought is incomplete.  The thought is complete when the sentence is complete by adding “Fatima cannot go to sleep.”

Consider the following sentences and identify the subordinating conjunctions and subordinate clauses:

  1. After the governor closed schools in Michigan, students continued studying by remote learning.
  2. Although remote learning poses difficulties for students and teachers, both are working as best as possible.
  3. Students will fall behind in their education, if they fail to read daily and complete assignments.
  4. Most students are completing assignments online, while they enjoy the comforts of being at home.
  5. Students will celebrate when schools in Michigan eventually reopen.

To show that you understand subordinate clauses with subordinating conjunctions and subordinate clauses with relative pronouns, compose three sentences of each type, identify each in parentheses, and try to weave the six sentences into a short story. The topic is your choice.