The five components of comprehensive literacy instruction:
- Phonemic awareness– the ability to identify and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) within words.
- Phonics– the study and use of sound/ letter correspondences and syllable patterns to help students identify written words.
- Fluency– reading a text with sufficient rate (words per minute), accuracy (number of words correctly identified), and prosody (expression) to support comprehension.
- Vocabulary– the body of words and their meanings that students must understand in order to read text with fluency and comprehend.
- Comprehension– the ability to make meaning requiring specific skills and strategies, vocabulary, background knowledge and verbal reasoning skills.
If you would like more information, please visit the National Reading Panel.