Chapter 1 Vocabulary
- Archaeologist: an expert who studies the past by examining objects that people have left behind.
- Historian: an expert who studies and records the past.
- Geographer: an expert who studies and creates maps of Earth’s natural and human-made features.
- Artifact: an object made or used by people in the past.
- Prehistoric: before written history.
- Ritual: relating to a ceremony, such as a religious ceremony.
Chapter 2 Vocabulary
- Migrate To move from one geographic region to another
- Anthropologist A scientist who studies human development and culture
- Hominids An early ancestor of Humans
- CapabilityAbility or skill
- SkeletonThe bones that make up the body of a person or animal
- TraitA special feature or characteristic
- IntelligenceA strong mental ability to reason and gain knowledge
- Community A group of people who live in the same area and are united by common interests
- Contribute To give, along with others, to a common cause
- Agriculture: the business of farming; growing crops and raising animals.
- Catal Hoyuk: a Neolithic town discovered in central Turkey
- Domesticate: to train a wild animal to be useful to humans
- Fertile Crescent: an arc-shaped region in southwest Asia, with rich soil
- Neolithic Age: the later part of the Stone Age, called the New Stone Age, lasted from around 8000 B.C.E. to 3000 B.C.E
- Nomad: One who moves from place to place with no permanent home
- Paleolithic Age: .the first period of the Stone Age called the Old Stone Age. From about 2 million years ago to around 8000 B.C.E.
- Resource: something that can be used to fulfill a need
- Trade: the business of buying and selling or exchanging items
Chapter 4: The Rise of Sumerian City-States
- Mesopotamia: in ancient times, the geographic area located between the Tigris and Euphrates River
- Tigris River: one of the two largest rivers in Southwest Asia that flow from the mountains in Turkey to the Persian Gulf
- Euphrates: one of the two largest rivers in Southwest Asia that flow from mountains in Turkey to the Persian Gulf
- Sumer: an area in southern Mesopotamia, where cities first appeared
- Irrigation: a means of supplying land with water
- Levee: a wall of earth built to prevent a river from flooding its banks
- Silt: fine particles of rock
- City-state: an early city that was like a small, independent country with its own laws and government
Chapter 5: Ancient Sumer
- Civilization: A society marked by developed arts, sciences, government, and social structure
- Social structure: The way a civilization is organized
- Technology: The use of tools and other inventions for practical purposes
- Merchant: A person who makes money by selling goods
- Artisan: A craftsperson
- Scribe: A person who writes
- Ziggurat: An ancient Mesopotamian temple tower with outside staircases and shrine at the top
- Culture: A characteristic of civilization that includes the beliefs and behaviors of a society or a group of people
- Cuneiform: Writing that uses wedge-shaped characters
- Pictograph: A symbol that stands for an object
Chapter 6: Mesopotamian Empires
- empire: A large territory in which several groups of people are ruled by a single leader or government
- Tribute: Wealth sent from one country or ruler to another as sign that the other is superior
- Economy: The way a region or country uses resources to produce and sell or trade goods and services to meet people’s needs and wants
Capital: A city that is the center of government
- Code of Laws: A collection of written laws and rules
- Siege: A military blockade and attack on a city to force it to surrender
- Invader: Someone who forces entry into a place where they are unwanted
- Unify: To join together
- Nile River: The longest river in the world, flowing through eastern Africa to a delta in northeast Egypt
- Egypt: A nation in northeast Africa, first settled around 3100 B.C.E.
- Kush: A society along the Nile River, south of Egypt, from about 2000 B.C.E. to 350 C.E.
- Mediterranean Sea: A body of water north of Africa
- Pharaoh: A ruler of ancient Egypt
- Hatshepsut: The first woman Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt
- Ramses II: An ancient Egyptian pharaoh, known as “Ramses the Great”; skilled as a military leader; and responsible for building many monuments, including the temple at Abu Simbel.
- Treaty: A written agreement by which two or more states agree to peaceful relations
- Period: a length of time
- Accomplish: to complete something successfully
- Structure: something that has been built
- Authority: the government or controlling power
- Reign: the period of time someone rules, usually royalty
Chapter 9: Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
- Social Pyramid: A pyramid outline showing the positions of social classes according to their status in a society
- Social Class: A group in a society that is ranked by factors such as wealth, property, and rights.
- Status: Importance
- Noble: Of high birth or rank
- Peasant: A person who does farmwork for wealthy landowners.
- Afterlife: An existence after death.
- Hieroglyph: A symbol used in hieroglyphics, a system of writing developed around 3000 B.C. E.
- Supreme: The highest ruling level
- Occupy: To take up or fill
- Rigid: Stiff; unable to bend
- Role: A position based on socially expected behavior
- Neutral: Not taking sides or getting involved in disagreements
World Religions Vocabulary:
EQ: What do Shang artifacts reveal about this Civilization?
- Anyang: Location where ruins were found from the Shang dynasties, China’s first civilization
- Shang Dynasty: One of the first Chinese dynasties, ruled from 1700 to 1122 B.C.E.
- Clan: A large group of family members and friends.
- Bronze: A strong metal alloy made from copper.
- Military: Relating to the Army.
- Ancestor Worship: Honoring of ancestors through rituals, such as offering food to the spirits of the dead.
- Oracle bone: A piece of bone or shell heated and cracked by holy men to seek advice from a king’s ancestors.
Three Chinese Philosophies
- Zhou Dynasty: A line of rulers in China, from about 1045 to 256 B.C.E.
- Mandate of Heaven: A power or law believed to be granted by a god
- Feudalism: A system of government based on landowners and tenants
- Confucianism: A Chinese philosophy that emphasizes proper behavior
- Civil servant: A person who works for a government
- Daoism: A Chinese Philosophy that emphasizes living in harmony with nature
- Yin and Yang: The Daoist concept of opposing forces of nature
- Legalism: A Chinese philosophy that emphasizes strict obedience to laws
- Silk Road: A network of trade routes that stretched for more than four thousand miles across Asia
- Trade route: A network of roads along which traders traveled
- Caravan: A group of people traveling together.
- Cultural diffusion: the spreading of cultural traits, such as goods and ideas, from one culture to another, or within one culture
- Dominated: To have control or power over something
- Linked: to connect two or more people or things
- Acquire: To come into possession of something
- Oxygen: A gas in the air that people and animals need to breathe to live
- Occurs: To take place
Geography and the Settlement of Greece
- Peninsula: A body of land that is surrounded on three sides by water
- Aegean Sea: An arm of the Mediterranean Sea, east of Greece
- Colony: A settlement under control of a usually distant country
- Consulting: To get an opinion and information from someone
- Participate: To take part in something, such as a game or activity
The Rise of Democracy
- Monarchy: A government in which the ruling power is in the hands of one person
- Aristocrat: A member of the most powerful class in ancient Greek society.
- Oligarchy: A government in which the ruling power is in the hands of a few people.
- Tyranny: A government in which absolute ruling power is held by a person who is not a lawful king.
- Democracy: A government in which power is held by the people, who exercise power directly or through elected representative.
- Citizen: A person who has certain rights and duties in a city-state or nation.
- Assembly: A group of citizens, in an ancient Greek democracy, with the power to pass laws.